Image and Icon in Christian Tradition: Essay Bibliographies 2004-5

This list is intended as a resource and a starting point: it is not exhaustive, and in some cases (e g questions 2 or 5 (a) –5 (c)) the reading list will depend largely on the images chosen for discussion. Abbreviated titles can be expanded with reference to the longer bibliography which you will have received as part of the course outline. For some issues, the available reading in English is rather limited (much of the critical literature on Rublev, for example, is in Russian). Students should note that in most cases the basic starting point should be a consultation of the relevant entries in the Dictionary of Art (ed Jane Turner, 34 vols) - there are copies in the UL, the Architecture and History of Art Library, and the Cambridge City Reference Library : many of the College libraries also have copies . The entries in the various standard theological dictionaries kept in the Faculty Library will also usually be valuable.

To avoid duplication of material, candidates who submit essays on question 3 may not submit essays on question 5 (d), candidates who submit essays on question 6 may not submit essays on question 5 (c ), and candidates who submit essays on question 7 may not submit essays on Question 5 (b). All candidates are encouraged to offer one essay involving close reading of an image or images (ie one of your essays should be on a topic chosen from questions 2, 5, 6, or 7).

1. What was at stake for Christianity in the Iconoclastic controversy?

a) Some suggested primary sources:

  • Cyril Mango (ed) The Art of the Byzantine Empire (Englewood Cliffs 1972):
  • St John of Damascus On the Divine Images.(trans and ed David Anderson):
  • Decrees of 2nd Council of Nicaea: in Tanner and Alberigo, The General Councils.

b) Secondary reading:

  • Judith Herrin, The Formation of Christendom (London 1989):
  • John Haldon, Byzantium in the Seventh century (Cambridge 1990):
  • Anthony Bryer and Judith Harris, (eds) Iconoclasm (Birmingham 1977):
  • Robin Cormack, Writing in Gold, Byzantine Society and its icons (London 1985)
  • Nichols, Art of God Incarnate: Ouspensky, Theology of the Icon vol 1
  • E J Martin, Iconclastic controversy: P C Finney,The Invisible God:the earliest Christians on Art,(Oxford 1994):
  • Hans Belting, Likeness and Presence ch 8:
  • Freedberg, Power, chs 4, 14: Grabar, Christian Iconography:
  • E Kitzinger,"The Cult of Images in the Age before Iconoclasm":
  • Mary Charles Murray, "Art and the Early Church":
  • Pelikan, Imago Dei:
  • J Gutmann, The Image and the Word (1977):
  • P C Finney (ed) Seeing Beyond the Word (1999):
  • E Kitzinger, “The Cult of Images in the age before Iconoclasm”, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 8 (1954) pp 83 ff. :
  • Averil Cameron “The Language of Images” in D Webb (ed) The Church and the Arts, Studies in Church History vol 28 (1995):
  • Charles Barber, Figure and Likeness. On the limits of representation in Byzantine iconoclasm (Princeton 2002)

2. “The Word became Flesh and dwelt amongst us.” Discuss the visual expression of this in any two works of art.

Some examples of exposition of images of the Incarnation:

  • J Drury, Painting the Word, (London and New Haven 2001),
  • Pelican, Imago Dei chs 3 and 5.
  • Julia Kristeva “Holbein’s dead Christ” in Black Sun (New York 1989).
  • Soskice, “Sight and Vision” in T Brennan and M Jay (eds) Vision in Context (London 1996)
  • Elsner, Art and the Roman Viewer

3. How would you account for the recurrence in Christian culture of the notion that some images are holier than others?

  • Hans Belting, Likeness and Presence chs 4, 11:
  • Cormack, Painting the Soul ch 3
  • Wilson, Shroud of Turin:
  • A Cameron "The Sceptic and the Shroud" in Continuity and Change in Sixth Century Byzantium, and "The History of the Image of Edessa:
  • the Dictionary of Art vol 8 pp 195-204, 210-216
  • Kuryluk, Veronica: Ian Wilson, Holy Faces, Secret Places (London 1991) - (sensational, to be read with scepticism, but contains a lot of useful material):
  • Ouspensky, Theology of the Icon ch 3: David Freedberg, The Power of Images.

4. Discuss the relationship between the cult of holy images and either

(a) the cult of relics

  • Peter Brown, The Cult of the Saints:
  • D Freedberg, The Power of Images ch 5:
  • Belting, Likeness and Presence ch 10:
  • G J C Snoek, Medieval piety, from relics to the eucharist (Leiden 1995):
  • P Geary, Furta Sacra: Thefts of Relics in the Middle Ages (Princeton 1978):
  • H Maguire, The icons of their bodies: saints and their images in Byzantium (Princeton 1996):
  • Henk Van Os (editor) The Way to heaven: Relic veneration in the Middle Ages:
  • I H Forsyth, The Throne of Wisdom, Wood Sculptures of the Madonna in Romanesque France (Princeton 1972) [on statues used as reliquaries):
  • Charles Barber, Figure and Likeness. On the limits of representation in Byzantine iconoclasm (Princeton 2002).

or (b) the sacrament of the Eucharist.

  • David Jones, “Art and Sacrament” in Epoch and Artist:
  • James Clifton, The Body of Christ in the Art of Europe and New Spain 1150-1800 , (New York 1988):
  • B C Lane, The Altar and the Altarpiece, Sacramental Themes in Early Netherlandish Painting (New York 1984):
  • G J C Snoek, Medieval piety, from relics to the eucharist (Leiden 1995):
  • Henk Van Os, The Art of Devotion, 1994.

5. Write a theological commentary on one of the following:

(a) A specified image of the Trinity:

  • Dictionary of Art 27 pp 304-6: :
  • G Schiller, Iconography of Christian Art,
  • V Lossky, The Mystical Theology of the Eastern Church:
  • G I Urzdornor (ed) Troitsa Andreia Rubleva: Antologia: Ouspensky and Losky, The Meaning of Icons pp 200-5:
  • Onaschi & Schneiper, Icons, pp 142-3:
  • Baggley, Doors of Perception chs 5, 7, pp 112, 142:
  • Pattison, Art, Modernity and Faith, ch 7:
  • V N Lazarev, “La Trinite d’Andre Roublev”, Gazette Beaux Arts 1959 pp 282 ff:
  • idem, The Moscow School of Icon Painters (Moscow 1971):
  • Pelikan, Imago Dei ch 6.

(b) A specified crucifix (see also bibliography for q.7 below)

  • Crucifixion (no author or editor, Phaidon Books 2000) - a useful gallery of crucifixion paintings and carvings from the fourth to the twentieth centuries):
  • Richard Harries, The Passion in Art, Ashgate 2004, (Fairly basic commentary, but once again a good selection of images):
  • Dictionary of Art vol 8 pp 195-204, 210-216:
  • G Schiller, Iconography of Christian Art, vol 2 pp 88-164:
  • E Parker and C T Little (eds) The Cloisters Cross, its art and Meaning (Metropolitan Museum of Art 1994):
  • C E Pocksee, Cross and Crucifix (London 1962):
  • Pierpoint Morgan Library, The Stavelot Tryptich (Oxford , New York, London 1980) (contains useful primary source material from the feasts of the Cross from the Golden legend):
  • B C Raw, Anglo-saxon Crucifixion Iconography :
  • George Henderson, Early Medieval (Toronto 1993 reprint) ch 6 (very good on the early evolution of the Cross and its theological context):

(c ) a specified image of the Virgin and Child

  • G Schiller, Iconography of Christian Art,
  • C Ebertshauser et al.,Mary: Art, Culture and Religion through the Ages (New York 1997):
  • Ouspensky and Lossky, The Meaning of Icons, pp 80-102:
  • Onaschi & Schneiper, Icons, pp 155-73: ):
  • Hilda Graef, Mary: a History of Doctrine and Devotion (London 1963):
  • Marina Warner, Alone of All her Sex (London 1976):
  • Maria Vassilaki (ed) Mother of God: Representations of the Virgin in Byzantine Art, Milan 2000:
  • Janet Soskice, “Sight and Vision” in T Brennan and M Jay (eds) Vision in Context (London 1996):
  • Pelikan , Imago Dei ch 5.
  • Tina Beattie, God’s Mother and Eve’s Advocate (2002).
  • Sarah Jane Boss, Empress and Handmaid: on Nature and Gender in the Cult of the Virgin (2000):
  • George Tavard, The Thousand Faces of the Virgin Mary (1996):
  • Rowan Williams, Ponder these things: Praying with Icons of the Virgin Mary (2002):
  • K Ware “The Mother of God in Orthodox Theology and Devotion” in A Stacpoole (ed) Mary’s Place in Christian Dialogue (Slough 1982).

(d) Either The Mandelion or the Veronica

  • Belting, Likeness chs 4, 11:
  • Cormack, Painting the Soul ch 3 :
  • Wilson, Shroud of Turin: A Cameron "The Sceptic and the Shroud" in Continuity and Change in Sixth Century Byzantium, and "The History of the Image of Edessa:
  • the Dictionary of Art vol 8 pp 195-204, 210-216: 1985):
  • Kuryluk, Veronica:
  • Ian Wilson, Holy Faces, Secret Places (London 1991) - (sensational, to be read with scepticism, but contains a lot of useful material):
  • Ouspensky, Theology of the Icon ch 3.

(e) The Mosaic of the Transfiguration, St Catherine’s monastery, Sinai.

  • Robin Cormack, Byzantine Art (Oxford 2000) ch 2:
  • Jas Elsner, Art and the Roman Viewer, (Cambridge 1995)
  • G H Forsyth and K Weitzman, The Monastery of St Catherine at Mount Sinai:
  • K Weitzmann, Studies in the Arts at Sinai:
  • O Baddeley and E Briesener, The Monastery of St Catherine (London 1996):
  • A Grabar, The Art of the Byzantine Empire
  • O Demus, Byzantine Mosaic Decoration (New Rochelle 1976):
  • Students attempting this essay will find it useful to read Gregory of Nyssa’s Life of Moses (Paulist press 1979)

(f) The Apse Mosaic in San Clemente, Rome:

  • Dictionary of Art vol 26 pp 827-8:
  • R Krautheimer, Rome, Profile of a City (Princeton 1980) ch 12:
  • E Scaccia Scarfoni, "Il Mosaico absidale de S Clemente in Roma" Bolletino d'Arte XXXIX (1935) pp 49-68:
  • W Oakeshott, The Mosaics of Rome (London 1967) esp pp 247-50:
  • M Stroll, "The Twelfth Century Apse Mosaic in San Clemente" Stor & Civ IV (1988) pp 3-17:
  • L Dempsey (ed) San Clemente Miscellany II (Rome 1978):
  • E Kitzinger “The Gregorian Reform and the Visual Arts” in Trans Royal Historical Society 5th Series vol 22 1972:
  • Mary Stroll, Symbols as Power – the Papacy following the Investiture Controversy (Leiden 1991):
  • J G Davies, The Architectural Setting of Baptism, London 1962:
  • C E Pocknee, Cross and Crucifix in Christian Worship and Devotion (London 1962).

(g) The Wilton Diptych.

  • Nigel Saul, Richard II, (New Haven and London 1997):
  • Paul Binski, Westminster Abbey and the Plantaganets (1995):
  • Paul Binski et al (eds) The Age of Chivalry, (London 1987):
  • J H Harvey, “The Wilton Dyptich, a reconsideration”, Archaeologia vol 97 (1961) pp 1-28:
  • Dillian Gordon,(ed) Making and meaning: the Wilton Diptych (London 1993):
  • Dillian Gordon, Lisa Monnas, Caroline Elam (eds) The Regal Image of Richard II and the Wilton Diptych (London 1997):
  • Drury, Painting the Word, ch 3..

(h) Van Eyck’s The Adoration of the Lamb.

  • Erwin Panofsky, Early Netherlandish painting,(Cambridge Mass. 1953)
  • Carol J Purtle, The Marian Paintings of Jan Van Eyck (Princeton 1982)
  • Robert Hughes and Giorgio T Faggin, The Complete Paintings of the Van Eycks, (Harmondsworth 1968)
  • Otto Paecht, Van Eyck and the Founders of Early Netherlandish Painting (London 1994):
  • Paecht, Early Netherlandish Painting (London 1997):
  • Pierre Courthion, Flemish Painting from Van Eyck to Bruegel (London, 1958);
  • Henk van Os, Jan Piet Filedt Kok, Ger Luitjen, Frits Scholten, Netherlandish Art 1400-1600, (Amsterdam, 2000);.

(i) Caravaggio’s “Madonna dei Pellegrini” (S. Agostino, Rome)

  • Helen Langdon, Caravaggio, a Life (New York 2000),
  • Howard Hibbard, Caravaggio (1985):
  • Alfred Moir, Caravaggio, (London 1989):
  • Beverley Louise Brown (ed) The Genius of Rome (London 2001):
  • M Kitson, The Complete Paintings of Caravaggio (London 1969):
  • C Puglesi, Caravaggio (London 1998)
  • Giorgio Bonsanti, Caravaggio, Scala Books 1991:
  • F Mormando (ed) , Saints and Sinners – Caravaggio and the Baroque Image (Chicago 1999).

(j) Holman Hunt’s “The Light of the World”:

a) Primary source:

  • William Holman Hunt, PreRapahelitism and the PreRaphaelite Brotherhood (London 1905) vol 1 pp 288-96, 300-2, 307-9, 404-6, 415-8, vol 2 pp 410-7.

b) Secondary reading:

  • P T Forsyth, Religion in Recent Art, (London 1905)
  • Jeremy Maas, Holman Hunt and the Light of the World (Aldershot 1984):
  • Walker Art Gallery, William Holman Hunt (Liverpool 1969) item 24:
  • Mark Roskill, "William Holman Hunt's differing versions of the Light of the World" Victorian Studies VI (1963) PP 231 ff:
  • George P Landow, William Holman Hunt and Typological Symbolism (New Haven and London 1979) esp pp 34-7:
  • idem "Shadows cast by the Light of the World" Art Bulletin xlv (1983) pp 471-8:
  • Michael Wheeler, Ruskin’s God (Cambridge 1999):
  • Tate Gallery, The PreRaphaelites (London 1984) item 57. (In using the Tate catalogue and the Walker Catalogue, look at the other entries for Holman Hunt, especially those for pictures from the same period as the Light of the World):

(k) Stanley Spencer’s “Resurrection, Cookham”

  • K Bell, Stanley Spencer, a complete catalogue (London 1992)
  • J Rothenstein (ed) Stanley Spencer: Correspondence and Reminiscences (London 1979):
  • Adrian Glew, Stanley Spencer, Letters and Writings (Tate Gallery 2001):
  • G Spencer, Stanley Spencer by his Brother Gilbert (London 1961)
  • Duncan Robinson, Stanley Spencer (Oxford 1990)
  • F MacCarthy, Stanley Spencer: an English Vision (London and New Haven 1997):
  • K Pople, Stanley Spencer (London 1996)
  • R H Wilenski, Stanley Spencer, Resurrection Pictures 1945-50 (London 1951):
  • J Rothenstein, Stanley Spencer: Correspondence and Reminiscences,( London 1979) Modern English Painters (London 1984):
  • Arts Council of Great Britain , Stanley Spencer 1891-1959 (London 1976):
  • Tate Gallery, Liverpool, Stanley Spencer, a sort of Heaven, (Liverpool 1992:
  • Timothy Hyman and Patrick Wright (eds) Stanley Spencer (Tate Gallery 2001)

(j) Salvador Dali Vision of St John of the Cross.

  • S Dali, The Unspeakable Confessions of Salvador Dali (London 1976):
  • Alain Bosquet, Conversations with Dali (New York 1969):
  • D Ades, Dali (London 1995):
  • D Ades and F Bradley, Salvador Dali, a mythology, (London 1991):
  • K Bradley, Essential Dali (Bath 2000):
  • H Finkelsstein (ed) The Collected Writings of Salvador Dali, (Cambridge 1998):
  • Fleur Cowles, Friends and memories (London 1979)
  • Fleur Cowles, The Case of Salvador Dali (London 1959):
  • R Descharmes, Salvador Dali (London 1985)
  • C Masters, Dali (London 1995):
  • M Etherington-Smith, Dali, a biography (London 1992):
  • Ian Gibson, The shamefulLife of Salvador dali(London 1997)
  • D Vilaseca, Apocryphal Subject: masochism, identification and paranoia in Salvador Dali’s autobiographical writings (New York 1995).

6. “In its historical priority and its theological centrality, the image of the Virgin and Child has a fair claim to be considered the defining Christian image”. Discuss.

  • C Ebertshauser et al., Mary: Art, Culture and Religion through the Ages (New York 1997):
  • Marina Warner, Alone of All her Sex (London 1976).
  • Soskice, “Sight and Vision” in T Brennan and M Jay (eds) Vision in Context (London 1996):
  • Pelican , Imago Dei ch 5.
  • Tina Beattie, God’s Mother and Eve’s Advocate (2002).
  • Sarah Jane Boss, Empress and Handmaid: on Nature and Gender in the Cult of the Virgin (2000):
  • George Tavard, The Thousand Faces of the Virgin Mary (1996)
  • Rowan Williams, Ponder these things: Praying with Icons of the Virgin Mary (2002):
  • K Ware “The Mother of God in Orthodox Theology and Devotion” in A Stacpoole (ed) Mary’s Place in Christian Dialogue (Slough 1982).

7. “The history of the Crucifix is the history of Christian soteriology”. Discuss.

  • Crucifixion (no author or editor, Phaidon Books 2000) - a useful gallery of crucifixion paintings and carvings from the fourth to the twentieth centuries):
  • Dictionary of Art vol 8 pp 195-204, 210-216:
  • G Schiller, Iconography of Christian Art, vol 2 pp 88-164:
  • C E Pocknee, Cross and Crucifix (London 1962):
  • W W Seymour, The Cross in Tradition, History and Art (New York 1898):
  • George Every, Christian Mythology:
  • J Eric Hunt, English and Welsh Crucifixes 670-1550 (London 1956)
  • Pierpoint Morgan Library, The Stavelot Tryptich (Oxford, New York, London 1980) (contains useful primary source material from the feasts of the Cross from the Golden Legend):
  • E Parker and C T Little (eds) The Cloisters Cross, its art and Meaning (Metropolitan Museum of Art 1994) chs 3, 4:
  • Celica Chazelle, The Crucified God in the Carolingian Era (Cambridge 2001):
  • Anthony Cutler “Misapprehensions and Misgivings: Byzantine Art and the West in the Twelfth and Thirteenth centuries”, Medievalia 7, 1984:
  • Anne Derbes, Picturing the Passsion in late medieval Italy: James Marrow, Passion Iconography (1979)
  • Raw, Anglo-Saxon Crucifixion Iconography (Cambridge 1990)
  • George Henderson, Early Medieval (Toronto 1993 reprint) ch 6 (very good on the early evolution of the Cross and its theological context):
  • Hans Belting, The Image And its public in the Middle Ages (1990):
  • T J Herbert, The Humanisation of Christ in the Central Italian Panel Crucifixes...reflected in the development of Franciscan Christology (Berkeley 1989):
  • P Thoby, Le Crucifix des origines au Concile de Trente: Etude Iconographique (Nantes 1959):
  • Julia Kristeva, “Holbein’s Dead Christ” in Black Sun (New York 1989)

8. Discuss the theological factors at work in the evolution of either

(a) the Byzantine Iconostasis

  • J Bagley, Doors of Perception: icons and their spiritual significance. Valuable as an introduction: for the iconostasis in particular, pp 87-98:
  • Thomas Matthews, The Art of Byzantium (London 1998) ch 4 (good survey of the development and meaning of the Byzantine church:
  • there is also relevant material in chapter 2):
  • Hans Belting, Likeness and presence: A History of the Image before the Era of Art, (Chicago 1994) Chapter 12:
  • Robin Cormack, Painting the Soul: Icons, Death-Masks and Shrouds, ( London 1997) ch 3:
  • K Onasch & A-M Schnieper, Icons: the Fascination and the Reality (New York 1995) esp pp 218-24:
  • L Ouspensky & V Lossky, The Meaning of icons, (New York 1989) pp 59-69:
  • L Safran, Heaven on Earth, Art and the Church in Byzantium, chs 3, 4. esp pp 70-3:
  • Bishop Kallistos of Diakleia, "Teaching the Faith: the Meaning of the Divine Liturgy for the Byzantine Worshipper" in R Morris (ed) Church and People in Byzantium (Birmingham 1988) pp 7-28:
  • C Walter "The Origins of the Iconostasis" Eastern Churches Review 3 (1971) pp 251-67:
  • A W Epstein,"The Middle Byzantine Sanctuary Barrier", Journal of the British Archaeological Association 134 (1981) pp 1-28:
  • M Cheremeteff, "The Transformation of the Russian sanctuary Barrier..." in A Leong (ed) The Millenium: Christianity and Russia (New York 1990) pp 107-40:
  • Ouspensky, Theology of the Icon ch 13.

or (b) the Western altarpiece.

  • Dictionary of Art vol 1 pp 707-13:

E Bishop, "On the History of the Christian Altar" in Liturgica Historica (Oxford 1918)

  • the article "autel" in the Dictionnaire d'Archaeologie Chrettiene et de liturgie:
  • J Burkhardt, The Altarpiece in Renaissance Italy (New York 1988):
  • B C Lane, The Altar and the Altarpiece, Sacramental Themes in Early Netherlandish Painting (New York 1984):
  • H Van Os, Siennese Altarpieces 1215-1460 (Groningen 1984):
  • J Berge Sobre, Behind the Altar Table: Spain 1350-1520 (Comumbia 1989):
  • P Humphrey and M Kemp (eds) The Altarpiece in the Renaissance (Cambridge 1991):
  • E Borsook and S Gioffredi (eds) Italian Altarpieces 1250-1550:
  • Function and Design (Oxford 1994):
  • P Humphrey, The Altarpiece in Renaissance Venice (London and New Haven 1995):
  • Caterina Limentani Virdis and Mari Pietrogiovanna , Gothic and Renaissance Altarpieces, (London 2002)

9. “Iconoclasm is the strongest possible affirmation of the power of the visual”. Discuss.

a) Some suggested primary sources:

  • St John of Damascus On the Divine Images.(trans and ed David Anderson):
  • Decrees of 2nd Council of Nicaea:
  • B D Mangrum and G Scavizzi (eds) A Reformation Debate:
  • Karlstadt, Emser and Eck on sacred Images (Toronto 1991)
  • Book of Homilies, Homily Against peril of idolatry.

b) Secondary reading:

  • Martin, Iconclastic controversy:
  • Belting, Likeness ch 8:
  • Freedberg, The Power of Images;
  • Pelikan, Imago Dei:
  • Camille, The Gothic Idol:
  • Margaret Aston, England's Iconoclasts and The King’s Bedpost (Cambridge 1995):
  • Carlos Eire, War against the Idols (Cambridge 1986):
  • Bryer and Herrin , Iconoclasm:
  • Pattison, Art, Modernity and faith:
  • D Freedberg, The Power of Images, ch 4 and Iconclasts and their motives (1985):
  • Carl C Christensen, Art and the Reformation in Germany (Ohio UP 1979):
  • Bob Scribner, “Ritual and Reformation” in Popular Culture and Popular Movements in Reformation Germany (London 1987):
  • Lee Wendel, Voracious Idols and Violent Hands (Cambridge 1995)
  • P Mack Crew, Calvinist Preaching and Iconoclasm in the Netherlands (Cambridge 1978).

10. Why did the Reformation not result in the consistent protestant repudiation of the holy image?

  • P W Parshall and L B Parshall, Art and the Reformation, an annotated bibliography (Boston 1986):
  • B D Mangrum and G Scavizzi (eds) A Reformation Debate: Karlstadt, Emser and Eck on sacred Images (Toronto 1991)
  • Book of Homilies, Homily Against peril of idolatry
  • S Michalski, The Reformation in the Visual Arts (Cambridge 1993)
  • Carl C Christensen, Art and the reformation in Germany (Ohio 1979): * Margaret Aston, England's Iconoclasts and The King’s Bedpost (Cambridge 1995):
  • Carlos Eire, War Against the idols (Cambridge 1986)
  • Philip Benedict, “Calvinism as a Culture? Preliminary remarks on Calvinism and the Visual Arts” in P C Finney (ed) Seeing the Word (Cambridge Mass 1999):
  • Charles Garside, Zwingli and the Arts (Yale 1966):
  • Joseph Leo Koerner, The Reformation of the Image (London 2004):
  • Bob Scribner, “Ritual and Reformation” in Popular Culture and Popular Movements in Reformation Germany (London 1987):
  • Scribner, “The Image and the Reformation” in J Obelkevich and others (eds) Disciplines of faith (London 1987):
  • Scribner, For the Sake of Simple Folk: popular propaganda for the German Reformation (Cambridge 1981):
  • Lee Wendel, Voracious Idols and Violent Hands (Cambridge 1995)
  • L Wendel, “The Reform of the Image” in Archiv fur Reformationsgeschichte 80 (1989) pp 105-24:
  • David Stenmetz, Calvin in Context (Oxford 1995):
  • K A Strand, Reformation Bible Pictures (Ann Arbor 1963:
  • Patrick Collinson From Iconoclasm to Iconophobia: John Dillenberger, Images and Relics:
  • Theological Perceptions and Visual Images in Sixteenth-Century Europe (Oxford 1999).

11. Could there be a coherent Christian rationale for the claim that “pictures speak louder than words”?

  • Aidan Nichols, The Art of God Incarnate:
  • Frank Burch Brown, Religious Aesthetics: A Theological Study of Making and Meaning, (Princeton 1989), chs 3-5:
  • Pelikan, Imago Dei , esp chs 3 & 4:
  • Ouspensky, Theology of the Icon ch 10:
  • David Freedberg, The Power of Images:
  • Margaret Miles,Image as Insight: Visual Understanding in Western Christianity & Secular Culture (Boston 1989):
  • Anthony Monti, A Natural Theology of the Arts (Ashgatre 2003):
  • D Thistlethwaite, The Art of God and the Religion of Art (Solway 1998):
  • E G Heller (ed) Reluctant Partners: Art and Religion in Dialogue (New York 2004).

12. “Twenty-first century people can no longer inhabit the religious iconography of the Christian past”. Discuss.

  • Pattison, Art, Modernity and Faith: Morgan, Visual Piety:
  • P Tillich, On Art and Architecture :
  • Peter Fuller, Images of God: the Consolations of Lost Illusions (London 1990), and Theoria: Art and the absence of Grace.
  • David Jones, “Art and Sacrament” and “Religion and the Muses” in Epoch and Artist:
  • Roland Barthes, “The World as Object” in Norman Bryson (ed) , Calligram: Essays in New Art History from France (Cambridge 1988):
  • John Dillenberger, A theology of artistic sensibilities: the visual arts and the Church, ( London 1987):
  • Ouspensky, Theology of the Icon, ch 18:
  • R Crumlin (ed) Beyond Belief: Modern Art and the Religious Imagination (Victoria 1998).

13. Can non-believers produce good religious art?

  • W Kandinsky, Concerning the Spiritual in Art (New York 1977):
  • K J Regier, The Spiritual Image in Modern Art (Illinois 1987):
  • D Apostolos Cappadona, Art, Creativity and the Sacred (New York 1988):
  • Pattison, Art, Modernity and Faith: P Tillich, On Art and Architecture, (ed J & J Dillenberger, New York 1987):
  • J Dillenberger, Style and Content in Christian Art (London 1965):
  • J Dillenberger, Theology of Artistic Sensibilities (London 1986)
  • Jane Dillenberger, Image aand Spirit in Sacred and secular Art (New York 1990):
  • Jane Dillenberger, Secular Art with Sacred Themes, New York 1969: :
  • Peter Fuller, Images of God: the Consolations of Lost Illusions (London 1990):
  • Roland Barthes, “The World as Object” in Norman Bryson (ed) , Calligram: Essays in New Art History from France (Cambridge 1988)
  • W S Rubin, Modern Sacred Art and the church of Assy { New York and London 1961):
  • K Harries, The Meaning of Modern Art (1968):
  • R Harries, Art and the Beauty of God (London 1993)
  • G K Howes “Theology and the Visual Arts” in D Ford (editor) The Modern Theologians:
  • G Howes, “Religious art and Religious belief”, New Blackfriars vol 65 (1984).
  • D Kuspit, The End of Art (CUP 2004).G Pattison, Art, Modernity and Faith (London 1991):
  • J Elkins, The Place of Religion in Contemporary Art (London 2004).
  • D J Haynes, The Vocation of the Artist (CUP 1997):
  • H R Rookmaaker, Modern Art and the Death of a Culture (1970):
  • R Harries, Art and the Beauty of God (London 1993):
  • Gail Gelburd, Mother and Child, the art of Henry Moore (New York 1987):
  • W S Rubin, Modern Sacred Art and the Church of Assy (New York 1961):
  • M A Coutourier, Sacred Art (trans G Ryan) (Austin Texas 1989):
  • T F O’Meara, Modern Art and the Sacred: the prophetic ministry of Alain Coutourier,” http://www.spiritualitytoday.org/spir2day/863814omeara.html
  • S J Barnes, The Rothko Chapel, an Act of Faith (Austin Texas 1989): * Jeffrey Weiss (ed) Mark Rothko, New Haven and London 1998:
  • Sheldon Nodelman, The Rothko Chapel Paintings: Origins, structure, Meaning.(Austin Texas 1997)
  • Hans Kung, Art and the Question of meaning, London 1981:
  • N Wolterstoff, Art in Action: towards a Christian Aesthetic (New York 1980).

14. Are vulgarity and triteness relevant considerations in assessing the religious value of devotional art?

  • Frank B Brown, Good Taste, Bad Taste, Christian Taste: Aesthetics in Religious Life, (New York 2000):
  • F B Brown, Religious Aesthetics, A Theological Study of Making and meaning (Princeton 1989)
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